Covid-19 in children and adolescents: mild symptoms but not always
Low risk of adverse events following SARS-CoV-2 infection in Danish children and adolescentsApril 11, 2022. BMJ. Risk of adverse events after covid-19 in Danish children and adolescents and effectiveness of BNT162b2 in adolescents: cohort study # NEW Of 991,682 children and adolescents tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR in Denmark, 74,611 (7.5%) were positive.
The risk of hospital admission with any variant for ≥12 hours was 0.49%, and 0.01% of participants were admitted to the ICU within 30 days of virus positivity. The risk of MIS-C within 2 months of infection was 0.05%, while no participant had myocarditis other than MIS-C or encephalitis and fewer than 5 had Guillain-Barré syndrome.
In the post-acute phase (1-6 months after infection), participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 showed a 1.08-fold increase in physician contact rate compared to a cohort of reference sampled from all children tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period.
Overall, 278,649 adolescents received BNT162b2. Compared to unvaccinated adolescents, the estimated vaccine efficacy among 229,799 adolescents vaccinated with one dose was 62% after 20 days and between 175,176 vaccinated with two doses of 93% after 60 days during a period when Delta was the variant. dominant.
Risk of reinfection in children: a prospective study in England
March 28, 2022. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections in children: a prospective national surveillance study between January, 2020, and July, 2021, in England# NEW The study addresses the important issue of COVID-19 in children and the risk of reinfection over time in England.
These data were collected before the emergence of the Omicron variant, but they provide useful insight into the overall picture of the disease, which was quite different in children than in adults. The finding that reinfection may not have been the reason for hospitalization (i.e., patients may have been hospitalized with COVID-19, not because of COVID-19) is not unexpected.
The medical history of pediatric readmission cases requires a detailed review of underlying comorbidities and ICD-10 diagnoses.
However, severe symptoms of COVID-19 are more common in boys with a past medical history. A publication by Ward and colleagues found that in the first year of the pandemic (2020), 51 children and adolescents in the UK were admitted to pediatric ICU with COVID-19, and 91% of these had a pre-existing health condition.
However, the key finding of this research is that SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was not associated with fatal pediatric cases.Admissions of children and adolescents with confirmed COVID-19 in 14 US statesFebruary 15, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Hospitalizations of Children and Adolescents with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 – COVID-NET, 14 States,July 2021 – January 2022.
Coinciding with the increased circulation of the Omicron variant, hospitalization rates associated with COVID-19 in children and adolescents aged 0-17 increased rapidly in late December 2021, particularly among children aged between 0 and 4 years not yet eligible for vaccination.
During the periods of dominance of the Delta and Omicron variants, hospitalization rates remained lower among fully vaccinated adolescents aged 12 to 17 years compared to unvaccinated peers.